This research institute was established in 1904 to support work of Paul Ehrlich, its first director and funded by the private foundation “Chemotherapeutisches Forschungsinstitut Georg-Speyer-Haus”. Paul Erlich is the Father of the chemotherapyconcept originally developed to treat diseases of bacterial origin. He reasoned that there should be a chemical compound that can specifically target bacteria and stop its growth. He developed Salvarsan, the most effective drug for treatment of syphilis until penicillin came onto the market.
Paul Erlich is also known for his contribution to cancer research. He and his colleagues actively experimented on how tumour originates and spread. They also tried to understand how immune system can beat cancer applying vaccination concepts.
To be able to guide the treatment of neuroblastoma patients, doctors have developed a number of classification systems. Although sharing common features, they slightly vary by medical center, country and continents making direct comparisons of treatment results difficult. Doctors and scientists are trying to consolidate all systems in one in order to evaluate treatments in the past, currently ongoing and in the future.
Scientists have suggested a newer risk group classification system, the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification that would incorporate the best knowledge gained and recent advancements in the disease imaging and neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics. This system is based on imaging criteria using the image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) and the prognostic factors such as:
The child’s age
Tumour histology (the tumour appearance under the microscope)
The presence or absence of MYCN gene amplification
Certain changes in chromosome 11 (known as an 11q aberration)
DNA ploidy (the total number of chromosomes in the tumour cells)
Using these factors the INRG classification put children into 16 different pre-treatment groups (lettered A through R). Each of these pretreatment groups is within 1 of 4 overall risk groups:
Very low risk (A, B, C)
Low risk (D, E, F)
Intermediate risk (G, H, I, J)
High risk (K, N, O, P, Q, R)
This system has not yet become common across all medical centers, but it is being researched in new treatment protocols.
Doctors and scientists are planning to improve the INRG classification system by incorporating other molecular diagnostics data such as profiles of the neuroblastoma genome (DNA), transcriptome (RNA), and epigenome* in order to make precise prognostication even better.
Cancer is an umbrella term that covers a group of diseases sharing the common features but diseases vary by site of origin, tissue type, race, sex, and age. One of the main features is an uncontrollable growth of cells. These cells are capable of spreading to other parts of the body. This process is also known as invasion and metastasis.
Though cancer in kids is not the same as in adults, childhood cancer cells behave in the same way. They grow uncontrollably and can travel to new destinations in the body.
It is very quiet in the lab this month. No troubleshooting, no more long working hours, endless repetition of experiments, smiles and upsets… Almost all students completed their projects, submitted their works for grading and graduated. The last student is finishing at the end of August.
Time to focus on the collected data, reading literature, writing papers and new grants.
It is always a pleasure to host undergraduate students during summer months. Two students joined the RCSI Research Summer School (RSS) Programme. Both are working on the NCRC funded project to understand mechanisms that drive neuroblastoma pathogenesis. None of them had a prior lab experience, but nothing is impossible under John’s supervision.
A full concentration on every single step of the research.
The research is a long-term investment. It is always built up on the work of the predecessors. Keep research running is crucial to make the dreams come true. Dreams for better treatment options and quality of life.
Thank you to everyone involved in raising funds for CMRF!
It is fantastic to see so knowledgeable and enthusiastic young researchers in my research group. This year, the team is multinational with the Irish students mixing with Belgian and Malaysian. All together they are cracking the code of neuroblastoma microenvironment and tumour cells communication through understanding main differences between conventional cancer cell models and tumours.
The big research plan of the entire team consists of more smaller and focused projects to be completed within 10-12 weeks. All projects are unrestricted, they are driven by the intellectual curiosity of these students. This way is full of ups and downs, frustrations and encouragements when techniques do not work or reagents do not come in as expected. Some cancer concepts can also work differently in the given settings. Simple questions are bringing more challenges than expected. But at the end of the road is the best reward – contribution to the conceptual advancement of neuroblastoma microenvironment.
To understand the world around us, we have to do be curious and do “blue sky or curiosity-driven” research. It is a long shot, but this type of research can lead to practical applications down the road. One of the most recent examples is a drug Vismodegib (Erivedse) to treat basal cell carcinoma (the most common type of skin cancer) approved by the FDA in 2012. This drug targets genes of a hedgehog-associated signalling pathway. Defects in this pathway were found to drive many cases of skin cancer. But, how this relationship was found? Blue sky research!
Researchers studied hedgehog signalling in fruit flies and mice. One of the researchers had a strong interest in a fruit fly gene called hedgehog. If this gene is defective, then fly embryos look stubby and hairy aka a hedgehog. Further research brought more interesting facts and relationships leading to the identification of a drug that can stop the function of this faulty gene. Decades later with the advancement of genome sequencing, the defect in hedgehog signalling pathway genes was identified in patients with locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma.
What would happen if there were no research in fruit flies and mice? There would have been no rationale to create a drug like Vismodegib!
The best discovery research is unrestricted. It is driven by intellectual curiosity and conceptual advancement. More such curiosity- driven research is needed. For every medical breakthrough, for every Vismodegib, there were hundreds of blind alleys and failed ideas.
The research is a long-term investment. This contradicts to the short-term life of the politicians and governments who give the money. They do not take the risks. So, the discovery research becomes critically underfunded.
Fundraising creates opportunities for blue sky research and developing cancer treatments.
Thank you all who support cancer research charities!
This is the first time in the history of the IACR meetings when an entire plenary session is solely dedicated to challenges and advancements in childhood cancer.
This session will unite Internationally recognised leaders in childhood cancer research. They will speak about what we know about origin and evolution of childhood cancers (Prof. Tariq Enver), how blood biomarkers can help in stratification and treatment of children (Prof. Sue Burchill), what impact Down syndrome has in the white blood cell cancer development and progression (Prof. Irene Roberts), how epigenetic changes affect tumour pathogenesis and future of therapeutics targeting theses changes (Prof Raymond Stallings).
It is always interesting to see what kids think about science and scientists. How their vision is affected by environment. A 7 year old boy drew a scientist in a funny but positive way. The scientist’s heart has a form of chemical flask.
Three years later, the same boy participated in the RDS Primary Science Fair which runs side by side with the BT Young Scientist and Technology Exhibition. The idea of this exhibition is very simple. It is a non-competitive event, showcasing STEM research projects (science, technology, engineering and maths) carried out by primary school classes across Ireland. The research projects encourage children’s native curiosity to explore the science behind the everyday.
His class presented a research project ‘Are We Living in the Dark Ages?’ The bunch of 4th class students were exploring the importance of sun light and electricity in our every day life.A colleague of mine was ‘Head Judge’ at this Fair and pointed out the overall enthusiasm and positivity coming from these young children about the research undertaken. I personally was stopped by every school team. Children wanted to share their findings. The project and its presentation were very important for them.
Children are natural explorers and when their ability can be encouraged by the events like the RDS Primary Science Fair, then we, adults, can feel reassured that research can make dreams come true. Dreams about new effective therapies, spaceflights to new stars and planets and many more.