A new, three-dimensional approach to cancer research

Appeared in today’s Irish Times. Lovely crafted by Dr. Vanesa Martinez

Although the discovery could be applicable in principle to any a solid tumour, Dr Piskareva’s target is neuroblastoma, a relatively common child cancer which affects a specific type of nerve cells in unborn children. “It’s quite aggressive and unfortunately there are many children who have metastasis when they are diagnosed, and this is the most challenging group to treat.”

Irish Times, 31 May 2018

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/science/a-new-three-dimensional-approach-to-cancer-research-1.3505347

Networks of Galaxies

Some researchers look into possibilities to predict real “me” by analysing what and how was said on social media.

This network of galaxies is a new project to get insights on how and where childhood cancer is placed on social media. It is a collaborative project with Prof Richard Arnett. It is already very exciting and more to come!

 

What is neuroblastoma?

Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer. The word neuroblastoma consists of two words neuro and blastoma.The term neuro refers to nerves, blastoma  –  to a cancer of immature cells.

It starts in some types of nerve cells during embryo development.transforming immature nerve cells into cancerous cells. This type of cancer occurs most often in infants and young children mostly under the age of 5 years old.

Neuroblastoma cells

Neuroblastomas behave very differently:

 

The types of treatment used for neuroblastoma can include:

Children who survive have a high chance of developing long term side effects as a result of the treatment that saved their lives

More details about neuroblastoma can be found here:

American Cancer Society

Cancer Research UK

September is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month

September is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month!
Facts about childhood cancer

Please watch this video created by St. Baldrick’s Foundation | The Childhood Cancer Ripple Effect

References:
Gatta G, Botta L, Rossi S, Aareleid T, Bielska-Lasota M, Clavel J, et al. Childhood cancer survival in Europe 1999-2007: Results of EUROCARE-5-a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(1):35–47.
Ward E, Desantis C, Robbins A, Kohler B, Jemal A. Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Statistics, 2014. Ca Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(2):83–103.
Dolgin MJ, Jay SM. Childhood cancer. 1989;327–40.
Miller RW, Young Jr. JL, Novakovic B. Childhood cancer. Cancer [Internet]. 1995;75(1 Suppl):395–405.
Raab CP, Gartner JC. Diagnosis of Childhood Cancer. Primary Care – Clinics in Office Practice. 2009. p. 671–84.
Howlader N, Noone A, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse S, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011 [Internet]. National Cancer Institute. 2014.
Ries L a. G, Smith M a., Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamra T, Young JL, et al. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. NIH Pub No 99-4649. 1999;179 pp
Warren KE. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: poised for progress. Front Oncol [Internet]. 2012;2(December):205.
Lackner H, Benesch M, Schagerl S, Kerbl R, Schwinger W, Urban C. Prospective evaluation of late effects after childhood cancer therapy with a follow-up over 9 years. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159(10):750–8.

 

Newspapers coverage of neuroblastoma: part 1

We do not hear much on neuroblastoma or childhood cancer in our everyday life unless we know a child affected by the disease. How much information can we get from newspapers? How do newspapers report it? What is their focus – a child, his/her family or social circles? In the next posts I will try to get insights from the content of newspaper’s stories.

To start with, I needed to select those newspaper articles that cover a story of a child with cancer over a period of time. To do that I selected a recent period  from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 because two major events happened during this time.

The first was the 2011 Pulitzer Prize book written by Siddhartha Mukherjee ‘The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer’ which describing the history of both adult and childhood cancer treatment development and research (Mukherjee 2010).  Importantly, this book inspired to produce a documentary film of three episodes of two hours each and released in 2015 (Goodman 2015). Researchers in social sciences agree that the publication of a prominent popular science book can lead to increased media interest in the issues raised in the book (e.g.  (Nisbet & Fahy 2013).

Another most recent milestone was a breakthrough in childhood cancer management – the FDA approval of a novel drug Unituxin (dinutuximab) for neuroblastoma, the most common solid tumour in children (U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2015).

 

The timeline of media coverage analysis
The timeline of media coverage analysis

 

next step is actual paper selection. There is an archive of all newspapers and magazines called  Nexis®UK database. This database stores copies of all printed papers and magazines worldwide as well as online versions.

Then an a search for articles carried out looking for key words:‘child’, ‘children’, ‘childhood’, ‘kid(s)’, ‘cancer (s)’, ‘tumour (s)’, ‘treatment’, ‘chemotherapy’, ‘radiation’ and their combinations.  Only articles published by the UK national newspapers and included key words in either the headline or text were selected. The search returned 255 articles. Of 255 articles, 84 contained a story about a child with cancer. The rest were standardised obituaries in the ‘announcements’ or ‘deaths’ sections, horoscopes containing the word ‘cancer’, fundraising and charity activities not involving an identified child, funding initiatives related to pure cancer research and service, reports on scientific achievements or challenges were excluded.

The selected 84 articles were published by the broad range of local and national papers that are daily on sale through news outlets to a general public in the UK.

Summary of selected newspapers
Summary of selected newspapers

 

The Q1: What has been the level of media attention to childhood cancer?

In the last three years, in average 20 articles per year across 9 UK newspapers were published telling us a story about a child with cancer. In other terms it is less than 2 stories per month. It is not enough to raise awareness, educate the public and form their opinion. Tabloid editorial was more interested in this type of stories than broadsheet.  This observation is likely due to the nature of tabloid paper interests looking for people personal stories, entertainment, sports and scandal.

Unfortunately, no change in media coverage of childhood cancer was observed around these two milestones (in 2011 and 2015). All together it suggests that neither of them had a strong influence on journalists or editorials regarding childhood cancer coverage.

Frequency of stories about a child with cancer by year (A) and type of newspaper oulet (B)
Frequency of stories about a child with cancer by year (A) and type of newspaper(B)

Interestingly, the growing trend in media coverage of children with cancer occurred by the increase in neuroblastoma coverage. Neuroblastoma had a nearly two fold boost in 2013 vs 2012 and then slightly declined in 2014 and 2015. Nevertheless, the FDA approval did not trigger attention to this cancer.

 

Frequency of stories about a child with cancer by cancer type
Frequency of stories about a child with cancer by cancer type

 

Reading

Goodman, B., 2015. Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies, United States.

Mukherjee, S., 2010. The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer, US: Scribner.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2015. FDA approves first therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma. FDA News Release.

* This study is a part of Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of M.Sc. in Science Communication