It is fantastic to see so knowledgeable and enthusiastic young researchers in my research group. This year, the team is multinational with the Irish students mixing with Belgian and Malaysian. All together they are cracking the code of neuroblastoma microenvironment and tumour cells communication through understanding main differences between conventional cancer cell models and tumours.
The big research plan of the entire team consists of more smaller and focused projects to be completed within 10-12 weeks. All projects are unrestricted, they are driven by the intellectual curiosity of these students. This way is full of ups and downs, frustrations and encouragements when techniques do not work or reagents do not come in as expected. Some cancer concepts can also work differently in the given settings. Simple questions are bringing more challenges than expected. But at the end of the road is the best reward – contribution to the conceptual advancement of neuroblastoma microenvironment.
The ultimate aim is to identify biomarkers of tumour response to drugs in the blood of children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Challenge: Treatment regimens for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma involve intensive, multi-modal chemotherapy. Many patients response to initial therapy very well, but has only short-term effects, with most becoming resistant to treatment and developing progressive disease.
The project has two parts which complement each other.
We will study cell-to-cell communication using cell-based models. We will collect exosomes, small envelopes containing bioactive molecules, produced by drug-resistant cell lines to treat non-cancerous cells. We will measure the effect of exosomes on non-cancerous cells by counting cell growth, examining their shape and metabolism. We will also examine whether non-cancerous cells treated with exosomes become less responsive to chemo drugs.
We will treat neuroblastoma cells with a drug and collect exosomes before and after treatment. We will profile exosomes to identify any changes in their miRNA content. MiRNA are very small pieces of genetic material that can change the way cell feels and works. This step will help to find biologically active miRNA that can trigger cell resistance to drugs. These biologically active miRNA can represent biomarkers of tumour response to chemotherapy.
We will screen clinical samples for exosomal miRNA in response to drug treatment. We are planning to use a small sample of blood taken from neuroblastoma patients during routine examinations before, during and after chemotherapy.This step will help to find clinically relevant miRNA of tumour responsiveness to chemo drugs.
How does this project contribute to the biomedical community?
This study aims to contribute to the better understanding of the disease mechanisms and scientific knowledge in the area, and in particular how neuroblastoma cells communicate with other cells helping tumour to create a unique microenvironment and protect themselves from chemotherapy pressure. The new data will give insights in biologically active proteins and miRNAs involved in cell-to-cell communication and drug responsiveness.
What are potential benefits of the proposed research to neuroblastoma patients?
This project aims to develop exosomal biomarkers of tumour response to drugs that might be used to help select patients for treatment and identify novel targets for the development of more effective personalised therapy with the anticipated improvement in outcomes. This work will contribute to the more efficient design of re-initiation treatment, sparing patients unnecessary rounds of chemotherapy and ultimately increasing survival. These new circulating markers will benefit children with high-risk neuroblastoma whose tumours are relapsed leading to less harmful and more tailored treatment options and improving their quality of life.